專注力不足/過度活躍症 (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, AD/HD)

一般來說,因ADHD特徵而有機會於升學/就業時出現的挑戰:

1. 執行技巧上的困難

根據研究顯示,專注力不足/過度活躍症 (ADHD) 人士因執行功能較弱,他們在組織、分析優先次序及計劃上遇到困難,以致他們升學及就業率較低 (Goudreau & Knight, 2018; Willcut, Doyle, Nigg, Faraone, & Pennington, 2005)。

2.  情緒調節及社交上的挑戰

由於專注力不足/過度活躍症影響自我控制能力,有可能造成他們在成長、在學或就業中遇到更多挫敗,例如經常轉換工作、未能持續完成任務、無法與別人建立及維繫長期關係等等 (Young & Gudjonsson, 2006),令他們在情緒調節及社交方面都面對很大的挑戰。

3. 應付大專及工作環境中的多樣性

大專學習及工作環境中較少會硬性規定每日行程,令有專注力不足/過度活躍症的人士有機會因時間管理的困難而低估實際情況,並期望自己能應付多個「死線」、有效分配自己的時間及完成學業/工作上的要求 (Willcut, Doyle, Nigg, Faraone, & Pennington, 2005),令實際情況與期望有落差。

自閉症譜系障礙 (Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD)

一般來說,因ASD特徵而有機會於升學/就業時出現的挑戰:

1. 升學及就業的壓力

研究顯示,有自閉症譜系障礙的青少年進入大專院校的機會比有其他特殊學習需要的青少年低(Wei et al., 2013),而且有少於50%有自閉症譜系障礙的青少年能維持同一份工作多於一年(Heep Hong Society, 2018)。研究者發現這些現象與其擁有的自閉症特質有關,泛自閉症者因為本身的障礙限制,在工作中難以快速組織與規劃,且容易誤解別人的指示,缺乏處理壓力和焦慮等的能力,因此當面對不夠明確的職務指令或是安排,容易產生挫折或是表現不如預期的現象(Hurlbutt & Chalmers ,2004)。如果他們未能適當處理因升學及就業所帶來的壓力,有機會令他們變得無心向學、感到生活質素變差,並誘發焦慮、抑鬱等症狀(Green & Kochhar-Bryant, 2009; Kim et al., 2000, Van Heijst & Geurts, 2015)。

2. 適應相對於中學生活中較大的「彈性」及「自由度」

自閉症譜系障礙人士較難適應改變 (Flannery & Horner, 1994) ,當他們面對新的環境,例如大專生活或工作環境時,他們亦都需要較多輔助,而他們有機會因未能充份了解自己的學習障礙所帶來的困難,較難為自己爭取適當的資源以面對新環境帶來的挑戰。此外,當他們未能掌握日常生活技能及人際社會技能時,於面對大專生活或工作環境時便會面對更大的困難,當中包括照顧個人需要、管理個人財務、獨立生活、維持良好人際關係的能力等等(林沛穎、林昱成,2015)。

參考資料

Bolick, T. (2004). Asperger syndrome and adolescence (2nd edition). Beverly, MA.: Fair Winds Press.

Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1990). Long-term criminal outcomes of hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention deficit and conduct problems in childhood. Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood, 1.

Flannery, K.B., & Horner, R.H. (1994). The relationship between predictability and problem behavior for students with severe disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 157-176.

Goudreau, S. B., & Knight, M. (2018). Executive function coaching: assisting with transitioning from secondary to postsecondary education. Journal of attention disorders, 22(4), 379-387.

Greene, G., & Kochhar, C. (2003). Pathways to successful transition for youth with disabilities. Prentice Hall.

Hendricks, D.R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities, 24, 77-88.

Heep Hong Society (2018). 「自閉症譜系青年就業情況」調查報告. Hong Kong.

Hofvander B, Delorme R, Chaste P, Nydén A, Wentz E, Ståhlberg O, et al. (2009) Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9, 1-9.

Hurlburtt, K., & Chalmers, L.(2004).Employment and adults with asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 215-222.

Kim, J. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S. E., Streiner, D. L., & Wilson, F. J. (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4, 117–132.

Mesibov, G.B., Shea, V. and Schopler, E. (2005) The TEACCH Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer, New York.

Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L., & Unnever, J. D. (2002). The relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to crime and delinquency: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 4(4), 344-360.

Savolainen, J., Hurtig, T. M., Ebeling, H. E., Moilanen, I. K., Hughes, L. A., & Taanila, A. M. (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminal behaviour: the role of adolescent marginalization. European Journal of Criminology, 7(6), 442-459.

Van Heijst, B.F.C. and Geurts, H. (2015). Quality of life in autism across the lifespan: a meta-analysis. Autism 19, 158-167.

Wei, X., Yu, W. J., Shattuck, P., McCracken, M., & Blackorby, J. (2013). Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) participation among college students with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1539–1546.

Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V. & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biological psychiatry, 57(11), 1336-1346, 2005.

Young, S., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2006). ADHD symptomatology and its relationship with emotional, social and delinquency problems. Psychology, Crime & Law, 12(5), 463-471.

林沛穎、林昱成(2005)。學習障礙學生中學教育階段之轉銜。國立屏東教育大學特殊教育文集 (七)。